首页 > 考研资讯 > 公共课备考 > 【考研】大纲所附常考前后缀,部分国家地区、语言名等

【考研】大纲所附常考前后缀,部分国家地区、语言名等

2019-06-28   欧阳栾天

1

大纲重要内容

ShallowLady Gaga;Bradley Cooper - A Star Is Born Soundtrack (Explicit)


常用的前缀和后缀,部分国家(或地区)、

语言、国民及国籍表,洲名

一、常用的前缀和后缀

1.常用前缀

aero-:  concerning the air or aircraft

plane—aeroplane

space—aerospace


anti-:against; opposite of

nuclear—antinuclear

matter—antimatter

war—antiwar


auto- :of or by oneself

biography—autobiography

criticism—autocriticism


be-: to treat as the stated thing

friend—befriend

little—belittle


bi-: two; twice; double

   lingual—bilingual

   cycle—bicycle


bio-: concerning living things

chemistry—biochemistry

sphere—biosphere


by-,bye-: less important

product—by-product

way—byway


centi-: hundredth part of a unit

grade—centigrade

meter—centimeter


co- together,with

author—coauthor

exist—coexist


col-:(used before l) together,with

location—collocation


com:-used before b , m , ptogether,with

passion—compassion


con-: together ,with

  centric—concentric

  federation—confederation


contra-: opposite

  diction—contradiction

  natural—contranatural


cor-: (used before r ) together ,with

  relate—correlate

  respond—correspond


counter-: opposite

  act—counteract

  attack—counterattack


cross-:across; going between the stated things and joining them

   country—cross-country

   breed—crossbreed


de-: showing an opposite ; to remove; to reduce

   code—decode

   value—devalue


dis-: not ; the opposite of

   advantage—disadvantage

   agree—disagree

   honest—dishonest


em-:( used before b, m, p) to cause to become

  body —embody

  power—empower


en-: to cause to become ; to make

large —enlarge


ex-: former (and still living)

  minister—ex-minister

  wife—ex-wife



extra-: outside ; beyond

   curricular —extracurricular

   ordinary—extraordinary


fore-: in advance, before; in or at the front

   arm—forearm

   warn—forewarn


il-: ( used before l ) not

  legal—illegal

  literate—illiterate



im-:  used before b , m, p not

    moral—immoral

    possible—impossible



in-not

  direct—indirect

  sensitive—insensitive


infra-: below in a range ; beyond

  red—infrared

  structure—infrastructure



inter-: between ; among

   change—interchange

   national—international


intra-: inside ,within ; into

   city—intracity

   department—intra-department


ir-: (used before r ) not

   regular—irregular

   responsible—irresponsible


kilo-: thousand

   gram—kilogram

   meter—kilometer


macro-: large , esp. concerning a whole system rather than particular

  parts of

  economics—macroeconomics

  structure—macrostructure


mal-: bad or badly

  function—malfunction

  treat—maltreat


micro-:  extremely small

  computer—microcomputer

  electronics—microelectronics


mid-: middle

  day—midday

  night—midnight


mini-: small ; short

   bus—minibus

   skirt—miniskirt


mis-: bad or badly ; wrong or wrongly

  fortune—misfortune

  understand—misunderstand


mono-: one ;single

  plane—monoplane

  tone—monotone


multi- more than one ; many

  purpose —multipurpose

  national—multinational


non-: not

  resident—non(-)resident

  sense—nonsense


out-: outside ; beyond

  live—outlive

  door—outdoor



over-: too much ; above; additional

   head—overhead

   time —overtime

poly-: many

  centric—polycentric

  syllabic—polysyllabic


post-: later than ; after

  graduate—post graduate

  war—postwar



pre-before ;in advance

   pay—prepay

   war—prewar


pro-: in favor of ,supporting

   America—pro-America

   abortion—pro-abortion


pseudo-: not real ; false

  name—pseudonym

 science—pseudoscience


   re-: again; back to the former state

   unite—reunite

   use—reuse



self-: by means of oneself or itself ;of , to , with , for , or in oneself or itself

  employed—self-employed

  taught—self- taught


semi-: half ; partly

  circle—semicircle

  final—semifinal


step-: not by birth but through a parent who has remarried

   mother—step mother

   children—stepchildren


sub-:  under , below ; less important ; part of the  stated  bigger whole

  divide —subdivide

  section—sub section


super-: more ,larger, greater than usual

  market—supermarket

natural—supernatural



tele-: at or over a long distance; by or for television

  communication—telecommunication

  screen—telescreen


therm(o) -: concerning heat

  chemistry—thermochemistry

  meter—thermometer


trans-: across , on or to the other side of ; between

  Atlantic—transatlantic

  plant—trans plant


tri-: three ; three times

   angular—triangular

   cycle—tricycle


ultra-: beyond ; very ,extremely

  modern—ultramodern

  sound—ultrasound


un-: not

  certain—uncertain

  fortunate—un fortunate


under-: too little ; below

  develop—underdevelop

  sea—undersea


uni-: one ;single

 form—uniform

 directional—unidirectional


vice-: next in the rank ;below

 chairman—vice- chairman

 president—vice- president



2.常用后缀

1 名词后缀

-ability , -ibility

   able—ability

flexible—flexibility


-age

post—postage

short—shortage



-al

arrive—arrival

refuse—refusal


-an ,-ian , -arian

library—librarian

music—musician



-ance ,-ence

appear —appearance

refer— reference


-ancy -ency

emerge—emergency

expect—expectancy



-ant ,-ent

  apply—applicant

  correspond —correspondent


-cy

accurate —accuracy

private— privacy


-dom

king— kingdom

free —freedom


-ee

employ —employee

interview— interviewee


-er , -or , -ar

paint —painter

beg —beggar

-ery

brave  —bravery

slave— slavery


-ese

China—Chinese

Japan—Japanese



-ess

actor— actress

waiter —waitress


-ful

hand— handful

spoon—spoonful


-hood

child— childhood

man— manhood


-ics

  electron— electronics

  linguist—linguistics


-ion ,-ition ,-ation

collect—collection

observe—observation


-ism

Marx—Marxism

socialist—socialism


-ist

psychiatry—psychiatrist

violin—violinist


-ity ,-ty

cruel—cruelty

pure—purity


-ment

move —movement

retire—retirement

-ness

dark—darkness

happy—happiness


-ology

climate—climatology

future—futurology


-ship

  friend—friendship

  scholar—scholarship


-sion ,-ssion

 decide—decision

 expand—expansion


-th

 grow—growth

 wide—width


-ure

 close—closure

 expose—exposure


(2)动词后缀

-en

 deep—deepen

 fast—fasten


-ify

 class—classify

 simple—simplify


-ize ,-ise

 modern—modernise\modernize

 popular—popularize\popularize


(3)形容词后缀

-able ,-ible

 suit—suitable

 question—questionable



-al

nature—natural

structure—structural


-an , -arian , -ian

 suburb—suburban

 Canada—Canadian


-ant ,-ent

 differ—different

 please—pleasant


-ary ,-ory

 advise—advisory

 custom—customary


-ate

 consider—considerate

 fortune—fortunate


-en

gold—golden

wood—wooden


-ese

China—Chinese

Japan— Japanese


-free

 care—carefree

 duty—duty-free


-ful

 care—careful

 pain—painful


-ic ,-ical

 atom—atomic

 psychology—psychological


-ish

 girl—girlish

child—childish


-ive

create—creative

support—supportive


-less

 hope—hopeless

 pain—painless



-like

 child—childlike

 lady—ladylike


-ly

man—manly

month—monthly


-ous ,-ious

 danger—dangerous

 poison—poisonous


-some

 tire—tiresome

 trouble—troublesome


-ward

 down—downward

 up—upward


-y

 guilt—guilty

 noise—noisy


(4)副词后缀

-ly

 easy—easily

 heavy—heavily


-ward ,-wards

 east—eastward(s)

 north—northward(s)



-wise

 clock—clockwise

other—otherwise


二、部分国家(或地区)、语言、国民及国籍表

国家(或地区)

语言

国民

国籍

America


American

American

Australia


Australian

Australian

Brazil


Brazilian

Brazilian

Britain

English

Briton

British

Canada


Canadian

Canadian

China

Chinese

Chinese

Chinese

Egypt


Egyptian

Egyptian

England

English

Englishman

English

France

French

Frenchman

French

Germany

German

German

German

Greece

Greek

Greek

Greek

India


Indian

Indian

Ireland

Irish

Irishman

Irish

Israel


Israeli

Israeli

Italy

Italian

Italian

Italian

Japan

Japanese

Japanese

Japanese

TheNetherlands

Dutch

Dutchman

Dutch

New Zealand


New Zealander


Portugal

Portuguese

Portuguese

Portuguese

Russia

Russian

Russian

Russian

Scotland

Scots,Scottish

Scotsman

Scots,Scottish

Spain

Spanish

Spaniard

Spanish

Sweden

Swedish

Swedish

Swedish

Switzerland


Swiss

Swiss

Wales

Welsh

Welshman

Welsh


三、洲    名

名词                              形容词

 Africa                                African

 America                            American

 Antarctica                         Antarctic

 Asia                                  Asian

Australia                          Australian

 Europe                              European

North  America                 North  American

Oceania                            Oceanic

     South  America               South  American               


孩子们,华哥给你们提供非统考专业课学习资源:历年真题、复习笔记。点击“阅读原文”,认真淘货哦




  • 全国统一客服热线
  • 010-88861710
  • 在线客服
  • 244539325

Copyright © 2012-2015  北京育智兴邦教育科技有限公司版权所有 | 京ICP备12005338号 | 京公网安备:110108008476号

关注微信